Ok, the tricky question: should we treat ADHD with pills or with mindfulness? Yeah, it’s not so tricky actually, I think it’s just me. For me it’s like this old question. In the adhd field, it’s like the oldest question. What is ADHD? ADHD is characterized by two symptom dimensions: Inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Inattentiveness would be for example having difficulty with sustaining attention on tasks or activities. Hyperactivity/impulsivity would be things like: being always on the go, high levels of motor activity, also having difficulty with waiting turn. And these symptoms of ADHD often come with significant impairment. For example, a child with ADHD may really struggle to listen to the teacher, they often miss instructions, generally having difficulties to pay attention in class.As a result, children with ADHD also often have severe problems at school. They often struggle academically, also often struggle in terms of peer relations. You are projectleader of a study called Mind Champ. Where does this stand for and what is the study about? This stands for mindfulness for children with ADHD and mindful parenting, like a ‘mind champion’. It’s a group based training, so we have a child group and a parent group. They take place at the same time, in parlor rooms.And the children basically get mindfulness-based intervention, adopted from MBCT, mindfulness based cognitive therapy. And the adults, the parents, also receive mindful parenting training. You interviewed participants in the study. What are the results that they report? A big effect that a lot of parents talk about is that they are less reactive in their parenting. So, for example, they would say: normally my child did something and I would just explode, and then of course the whole situation would escalate.Whereas after the mindfulness training, they say they take a 3-minute breathing space, they just take breaths, and instead of immediate reacting, they may think, okay, let’s talk about this, and basically de-escalate the whole situation. And, a lot of the families, a lot of parents have told us, that as a result, the stresslevels in the families have really calmed down. Are the results the same for everyone, or do they differ? What we find is that there is a lot of variation.Some children also may find that mindfulness really doesn’t work for them. That it’s not compatible with them, some children even have some sort of aversion to mindfulness, they really don’t want to do it. So it also seems to be very specific, the effects. For some people it seems to work really well, for others it seems to have no effect. So in other words, there is a lot of heterogeneity in treatment effects and, that’s why I think it’s also important to find out more about for whom is mindfulness suited? I understand it’s a difficult question to answer. But let’s try: pills or mindfulness? What I can say is that there is a big need for alternative treatments, or additional treatments for ADHD. We know that medication works very well, it’s effective in reducing the core ADHD symptoms. But there are also concerns about ADHD medication, in terms of longterm effectiveness. And also, there are ..side effects to using medication, such as affected appetite, and also sleep. So the hope is, that mindfulness may be able to address concerns about the longterm effectiveness that we have for medication.So that mindfulness may really have more longterm effects. And again, we need more evidence to study that. …..an empirical question that we need to address. .